What is arthritis and what is the causes of arthritis


Causes of Arthritis

There are many causes of arthritis, and some of the reasons are unknown as to why they happen.

Arthritis is a condition which affects millions of people worldwide, and as of the current timing, there is no actual cure for it.

That sounds awful, but it’s the truth of the matter.

Some people think that the leading cause of arthritis is hereditary factors and although that is true, the main reasoning for arthritis will have many reasons, as well different treatment plans and so on.  The possibilities are endless when it comes to investigating the world of arthritis and today; we are going to be taking a look into some of the causes of arthritis.

What Will Initially Cause Arthritis?

Depending on what type of arthritis a person has will ultimately result in different causes.

For all types of arthritis, there will be no single cause because all forms of this condition are various and will affect people in different ways.

So, there will be no substantial answer to that question because the answer will undoubtedly vary.

The different forms of arthritis can be linked to specific factors, but there haven’t been any noted, true causes of arthritis in general.

Below is a listing format, we are going to go over a few of the common reasons of arthritis that you may want to be aware of.


This is a prevalent factor and causes when it comes to arthritis because, throughout a person’s life, most people will endure what they call a trauma.

Trauma is like a minor car accident, falling off a horse, and any physical injury from small all the way to extreme trauma cases.

Keep in mind that in most cases where there is an injury, the impact of the crash or accident, when it happens right then will do most, if not all of the damage right then and there, but a lot of the times will not show up until later in life when old age hits.


Sometimes age has a lot to do with developing arthritis, although there have been cases whereas young people will develop arthritis, sometimes throughout infection or being born with arthritis.  So, yes there have been cases like that, but nine times out of ten, the older a person is, the higher risk they will be at for developing arthritis because of past injuries, hard physical labor, and the general wearing and tearing process of the joints and muscles.


Keep in mind that women aged fifty or more will be placed at a much more significant risk because the older a woman gets, the more brittle and weak her bones tend to become.  It’s just all part of the wearing down process a woman’s body will go through.

Another factor to take into consideration is that most women will develop the type of arthritis called, rheumatoid arthritis.

What is rheumatoid arthritis? 

This is a form of arthritis in which affects the immune system.  What initially happens is a person’s immune system will incorrectly attack a person’s joints.

There will be inflammation around the joint which will cause swelling and a lot of irritation.

Many women will develop rheumatoid arthritis in the hands and feet.

Arthritic joins (rheumatoid arthritis, arthrosis (osteoarthritis)).
The disease of the joints.


This will also be a cause of arthritis because by carrying around excess pounds places a lot of pressure on the joints and when a person is obese for many years, the risk of developing osteoarthritis only heightens.  A lot of weight will tend to place stress on the hips, spine, and knees.

This will be where a lot of the breakdown will occur in the joints.

Family History Factor:

A lot of people are born with the gene of arthritis, and as they age, their condition will only get worse, and the bad news is that there’s absolutely nothing a person can do to prevent it.

Now, there are medical practices that a person can engage in to lessen the severity of arthritis, but getting rid of it altogether is impossible.

There is no cure for it. 

Believe it or not, but there are even babies that are born with arthritis which makes it impossible for them even to walk, but that has been in rare cases.

Early Signs of Arthritis

It’s always great to have signs in life because signs and red flags will necessarily tell us if something is wrong and our bodies work with that same type of format.

Now, when it comes to one of the most common illnesses in The United States, which is arthritis, the early warning signs can be quite scary for a lot of people.

Arthritis is the inflammation, swelling, and pain of the joint and or muscle.

There is no cure for it, although there are medications, herbal remedies, as well natural healing processes that a person can engage in to take the severity of arthritis away.

It’s great to know the early warning signs of arthritis because to treat a condition; a person needs to know what they are dealing with, right?

Yes absolutely, and today, we are going to be taking a quick look at the early signs of arthritis.

A lot of people will begin to feel very fatigued and quite tired, especially around the affected joint or muscle and in severe cases, some people will not even be able to walk because of the weakness radiating around the joint.

Another ubiquitous sign of arthritis is joint pain, and this is probably the leading factor in speculating if you have arthritis.

Because of the inflammation of the joint, a person will tend to feel as though their joints and muscles are aching.

Some people will experience joint deformity, and this will sometimes occur when a child is born.

Yes, there have been cases where infants are born with crippling arthritis.  Although it is a little on the rare side, it does happen from time to time.

A lot of older people, especially older women aged fifty or more will undergo joint deformity with rheumatoid arthritis.

The appearance will nine times out of ten be in their hands, making the joints in the fingers twist, swell, and turn sideways.

There will get a lot of people that will lose their range of motion when it comes to the inflicted joint or muscle.

Why would this happen? 

Well, keep in mind that when a person has arthritis, nine times out of ten, their joints will become weaker and this will make the joints quite wobbly, resulting in a lot of people losing their range of motion for that specific joint or muscle.

Sometimes a person will develop a fever with arthritis, and this will usually be with rheumatoid arthritis.

People will develop a fever sometimes because they have an infection inside the joint/muscle and it very well can cause a person to feel as though they are becoming sick.

Please take into consideration that arthritis symptoms don’t always have to be within the joint or muscle.

There have been cases of people becoming short of breath and experiencing chest pain when developing arthritis.

Once again, this is because of the built-up infection that’s occurring in their bodies.

This too is linked with the early onset of rheumatoid arthritis. 

It’s important to know that rheumatoid arthritis can a lot of the times be symmetrical, meaning that if your right pinky finger is swollen with pain and irritation, then nine times out of ten, your left pinky finger will undergo the same symptom.

A lot of people will tend to notice pain first thing in the morning, and if you’re one of those people who has never had that before, it will be something to take notice of.

There are actually over one hundred unique arthritis conditions, and each will come with a different symptom.

One of the first signs of arthritis is a pain, and we refer to that as arthralgia.

What does this kind of pain usually tend to feel like? 

Well, this pain for a lot of people feels like a burning sensation or even a dull ache throughout the joints of the body.

Swelling of the joints is another factor that plays into arthritis and also is a prevalent symptom to take note of.

The swelling will occur because of the increased synovial fluid inside the infected joint.

Did you know that synovial fluid is a reasonable thing to have and it can also act as a cushion for a healthy joint?

Now, when you have arthritis, you will tend to have too much synovial fluid, resulting in joint inflammation and swelling of the inflicted joint or muscle.

Preventing Arthritis

There are many ways to prevent arthritis, all steaming from natural remedy practices, herbal medications, as well meditation techniques.

To be honest, there is no cure for this condition, but there are ways to prevent it from worsening, due to inflammation and arthritic pains.

For a lot of people, stopping arthritis can feel like an uphill battle that they will never win it because as I’ve said before, there is no cure for arthritis, but the severity of it can most definitely be prevented in getting worse.

That’s what a lot of people fail to realize when they get diagnosed with this condition.

They think that just because there is not an up-front cure for it, then you can’t prevent it from getting worse, but this is not true.

Today, we are going to be taking a look at how to avoid this condition from getting worse.

Make Sure You Eat Fish

This is one of the most important things that you can do if you have arthritis is to eat fish or take fish oil supplements.

Why is this? 

How does fish oil help in preventing arthritis?

causes of arthritis

causes of arthritis: Fish Oil helps to prevent the worsening of arthritis by calming down a person’s inflammation

Fish oil helps to prevent the worsening of arthritis by reducing inflammation, swelling, and overall pain throughout the body.

Omega-3 fatty acids are in fish, as well fish oil, and this is a key factor in preventing and reducing inflammation throughout the body.

It’s so important that you eat fish or include fish oil somewhere in your daily diet to help prevent the flare-ups of inflammation.

Controlling Your Weight

It’s a known fact that when you can control your weight, you lower your risk of developing diabetes.

Arthritis and diabetes are linked together, and nine times out of ten, if you develop one condition, you will get the other as well.

It just goes hand in hand.

Keep in mind that your knees support your whole body, and when there is excess weight throughout your body, the joints in the knees will tend to break down and give out, raising your risk for an early onset of the development of arthritis.

Getting Enough Exercise

This goes hand in hand when trying to prevent the early onset of arthritis or take away from the severity of it all.

Even if you have arthritis, when you exercise on a daily basis, you are teaching your joints and muscles to become stronger, and this will help your bones not to be so brittle and weak, lowering your risk of developing arthritis or have it get worse if you already have it.

What I would recommend you do is walk at least one mile per day, as this will help your whole body to grow stronger and more fit just in case you do have a fall, it may not injure you that badly.

Try to Avoid Injury

I know this is so difficult for so many people to do, but if you can try to avoid injury at all costs, do just that.

Freak accidents do happen; I realize that, but the critical factor is watching out where you walk, don’t go into places that are tapped off and so on.  A lot of it is merely using your common sense.

Throughout a person’s life, joints will tend to wear out.

That’s just the normal wear and tear process of what happens when older age hits.

We cannot control that.

What we can control is how we live our lives, not going to places that could make an injury very easy.

Take, for example, if you are going to a baseball game, try not to choose a seat where you have to climb a lot of stairs because you could easily get tripped up and fall.

Could you imagine what this would do to a person that has arthritis?

Always try to avoid injuries at all times because if you take a bad fall, you could very well wind up in the hospital with a broken bone.

Did you know that whenever you have arthritis, it’s ten times harder for a broken bone to heal on its own and will take more time to recover as well?

Try and stay as safe as you can whenever you have to go out.


Arthritis: What causes it?


In this video, we will discuss what causes osteoarthritis people think that it’s caused by overusing your joints but contrary to popular belief overuse of a joint does not appear to cause osteoarthritis abnormal use however does for example people say I used to run and this is why I have osteoarthritis in my knee well did you know that running significantly reduced osteoarthritis and joint replacement risk according to Williams in 2013

I actually see more people from inactive sedentary background with arthritis than from a physical one

Joints like movements and activity and hate the opposite the synovial fluid inside your joint acts like a lubricant which carries the nutrition for the cartilage weight bearing movement gets this working the best therefore staving of osteoarthritis rather than bringing it on now

I can hear footballers saying hang on my knees are ruined from football while evidence shows that the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in former elite soccer players is higher than the general population according to Kuijt 2012

However the issue with this is a few things firstly when a player has a cartilage tear at the highest level they immediately have a meniscectomy which is a removal of some cartilage this goes against the evidence for this problem the cartilage should heal over an estimated six month period of time with the correct rehab and therefore it should actually not need removal if you remove cartilage then you accelerate osteoarthritis development as the evidence shows 89 percent of patients experience osteoarthritis following meniscectomy according to Rangger at al 1997

The club’s want a quick fix in spite of any long-term implications that won’t affect the club when the player is retired secondly the players with osteoarthritis of the knees now played at the time that they didn’t have the science behind it and used to play on through injuries and get pain killing injections etc.

So provided you trained correctly don’t play to injury and don’t jump into surgery then you will do better than being a couch potato

Arthritis research UK states that the causes are as follows age osteoarthritis usually starts from the late forties onward this could be because muscles are weakening around the joints or the cartilage is wearing over time gender women get it worse and more commonly the men especially on the knees and hands obesity this is a big factor especially in the knees joint injury a significant injury or even surgery on a joint may lead to osteoarthritis this is also shown by Roos et al in 2005.

We found that younger people that had an injury we’re more likely to get osteoarthritis earlier physically demanding the repetitive occupations normal activity and exercise don’t cause osteoarthritis but doing very hard activities repetitively or physically demanding jobs can increase your risk.

Joint abnormalities if you were born with abnormalities or develop them as a child then you can get earlier and more severe osteoarthritis genetic factors genetic factors play a small part in osteoarthritis of the hip and the knee but there are definitive genetic parts to osteoarthritis.

For example Nodal osteoarthritis which affects the hands of middle-aged women is very genetic other types of joint disease sometimes osteoarthritis is the result of damage from such things as rheumatoid arthritis or gout so as you can see the causes are many and it’s not just old age.

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Arthritis – 101

Types of Arthritis

There are many types of arthritis out there, but did you know that there are over one hundred forms of it?

It seems to be growing in numbers each year, making it the most common illness in The United States of America.

That’s pretty shocking, isn’t it?  It’s hard to believe that there can be so many different types of this condition, but there are.

Each form of arthritis will affect a person in such different ways, even twisting the hands and feet with some conditions.

Some types of arthritis will also cause a person to lose complete control of range of motion!  Today, we are going to be taking a look at a few forms of arthritis.


This type of arthritis affects millions of people worldwide but is more common in The United States.

A lot of the times, this type of illness is called degenerative disk disease and what this is, is merely the wear and tear of a person’s joints which does sound quite scary, I know.

The most common symptom of this form of arthritis is extreme stiffness, especially after sitting for long periods of time or when a person first rises in the mornings.

This is because the joints have not been moving and active during the night.  The treatment for such an illness is to exercise, as this keeps the joints healthy and robust, as well the usage of various forms of prescription medications.


Many people wouldn’t think that Lupus is a form of arthritis, but in fact, it is.  Lupus is a long-lasting autoimmune illness which will affect different portions of a person’s body, including the joints, of course, the kidneys, as well other organs.  It can also affect the skin, bloodstream, as well the brain.

The symptoms of this illness can include feeling fatigued out, rashes, joint pain, as well photosensitivity.

The treatment for such illness consists of a combination of specific medications, as well lifestyle changes.

Keep in mind that these changes will not cure Lupus, but it will help to manage and deal with the illness itself.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Now, this form of arthritis is very serious, although all forms of arthritis are quite serious, but not in the way that rheumatoid arthritis is.

This is an autoimmune illness which can cause a person’s body to twist and form in very odd ways.  Some of the most common ways will be knotty, twisty fingers and toes that you see in a lot of older people.  Keep in mind that along with the common inflammation and pain, a person can also feel a loss of appetite, fatigue, and even a low-grade fever.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a severe condition and remember; there isn’t a cure for this kind of arthritis.

A person can only prevent the symptoms from getting worse through various medications and forms of exercise.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

What makes this type of arthritis so strange is the fact that it’s a complete state of profound fatigue which lasts six months or even longer.

It’s not improved by bed rest, and this condition could very well get worse with mental or physical activity!

This type of arthritic symptom deeply interferes with a person’s daily events, as well work.

The cause of chronic fatigue syndrome is still unknown as to why it happens and some of the symptoms including the following.

If you are a sufferer of chronic fatigue syndrome, you will tend to experience general weakness, muscles, and joints which ache, exhaustion, tender lymph nodes, difficulty sleeping, headaches, experiencing dizziness, as well experiencing a low-grade fever.  Once again, there is no cure for this type of arthritis, but it can be treated with prescription medications.


This is a form of an anti-inflammatory illness which will develop in some individuals that have high levels of uric acid inside the bloodstream.

It’s more than likely to affect men than women, and this condition occurs in four percent of adult Americans.

One of the most common symptoms of gout is extreme pain and swelling in the big toe, but keep in mind that this condition can also show up in the knees and ankles as well.  One way to treat gout is to make sure that you always keep your uric acids levels down, as well taking prescription medications to take the severity of gout away.

Arthritis Myths

There are so many different types of myths out there when it comes to arthritis, how to heal and cope with it, what causes it and so on.

The actual list of arthritis myths could go on for quite the long time.  A myth is a kind of an opinion that has a lot of popularity.

There could be some, remember that word some.

There could be some truth to it and then again, the whole myth could not hold an ounce of truth to it.

That’s the mystery of it all and today; we are going to be taking a look at some of the most strange and common myths out there circulating about arthritis.


What Are Some of The Myths Circulating About Arthritis?

  • Popping one’s knuckles will cause arthritis, and that is probably one of the most common myths out there relating to arthritis! Popping your fingers will not lead to arthritis, maybe just an annoying sound around others, but no this type of behavioral pattern will most probably not lead to forms of arthritis.
  • It’s a leading myth of arthritis that only elder individuals will get this condition, which is entirely incorrect! There have been accounts of teenagers developing various forms of arthritis!  Remember, a child can be born with crippling arthritis from the time it takes its first breath.
  • Some types of arthritis are hereditary and cannot be reversed.  So, not only elder persons can develop arthritis.  Although, it is prevalent for women aged fifty or more to develop arthritis, so this bracket will be placed at a higher risk because of the weakness and wearing out of the bones, but there have been cases where younger people can develop arthritis.
  • It’s been said that arthritis cannot be prevented and that is most definitely false. Keep in mind that although a person is male or female and nature cannot alter that, there are things that a person can do to prevent the severity of developing various forms of arthritis.  Such activities include maintaining a proper diet, exercising on a regular basis, wearing the appropriate gear during any physical sport, not smoking, and so on.  We must remember that we all only get one set of bones throughout our lives, so we need to be profound on taking proper care of what we have to preserve as much health in our bones as we possibly can.
  • It has also been stated that once a person is identified with arthritis, there isn’t a lot he or she will be able to do about that fact and once again, that is false. Why would this myth be false?  Well, keep in mind that there isn’t a complete treatment for arthritis just yet, but there are a lot of great medications, herbal supplements, and natural healing practices that a person can undergo to better cope and deal with the irritation of arthritis.
  • Some people will even state that once a person has been diagnosed with arthritis, they should wait and see if the symptoms go away naturally, which is the absolute wrong thing to do! Did you know that early attention, as well handling can preserve more than just a person’s joints?  That’s right!  There are some forms of arthritis which can source injury to the heart, as well other organs in a person’s body.  It’s vital, and we mean, crucial that you know exactly what category of arthritis that you have to obtain proper treatment of whichever type you have.  Most people do not see this, but there are over one hundred types of arthritis and if you do not know which type you have, how would you be able to treat it?  You must know exactly what form of arthritis you have because, in the long run, it could indeed save your life.
  • Some people will think that their diet has nothing to do with arthritis, but in fact, it does. Did you know that people who have arthritis will nine times out of ten, develop diabetes?
  • This is why obtaining a proper diet is essential in preventing the severity of arthritis!  Fish oil, Mediterranean foods, and Omega-3 Fatty Acids are vital to consume in your diet because these types of elements work in the body to reduce inflammation throughout the joints and muscles.

Rheumatoid arthritis – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

Rheumatoid arthritis - causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, pathology

In rheumatoid arthritis, “arthr-“ refers to joints, “-itis” means inflammation, and “rheumatoid” comes from rheumatism, which more broadly refers to a musculoskeletal illness.

So, rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, inflammatory disorder that mostly affects the joints, but can also involve other organ systems like the skin and lungs as well.

A healthy joint typically has two bones covered with articular cartilage at the ends.

Articular cartilage is a type of connective tissue that acts like a protective cushion – a lubricated surface for bones to smoothly glide against.

One type of joint, like the knee joint is called a synovial joint.

A synovial joint connects two bones with a fibrous joint capsule that is continuous with the periosteum or outer layer of both bones.

The fibrous capsule is lined with a synovial membrane that has cells that produce synovial fluid and remove debris.

The synovial fluid is normally a viscous fluid like the jelly-like part of a chicken egg and it helps lubricate the joint.

To help serve these synovial cells, the synovial membrane also has blood vessels and lymphatics running through it.

Together, the synovial membrane and the articular cartilage form the inner lining of the joint space.


Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune process that is typically triggered by an interaction between a genetic factor and the environment.

For example, a person with a certain gene for an immune protein like human leukocyte antigen, or HLA- DR1 and HLA–DR4, might develop rheumatoid arthritis after getting exposed to something in the environment like cigarette smoke or a specific pathogen like a bacteria that lives in the intestines.

These environmental factors can cause modification of our own antigens, such as IgG antibodies or other proteins like type II collagen or vimentin.

Τype II collagen and vimentin can get modified through a process called citrullination.

That’s when the amino acid arginine found in these proteins is converted into another amino acid, citrulline.

Meanwhile, due to the susceptibility genes HLA- DR1 and HLA–DR4, immune cells sometimes are not “clever” enough, so they get confused by these changes and they no longer recognize these proteins as self-antigens.

The antigens get picked up by antigen- presenting cells, and get carried to the lymph nodes to activate CD4+ T-helper cells.


T-helper cells stimulate the nearby B- cells to start proliferating and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce specific autoantibodies against these self- antigens.

In rheumatoid arthritis, T- helper cells and antibodies enter the circulation and reach the joints.


Once there, T- cells secrete cytokines like interferon- γ and interleukin- 17, to recruit more inflammatory cells like macrophages, into the joint space.

Macrophages will also produce inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor, or TNF- α, interleukin- 1 and interleukin- 6, which together with the T-cell’s cytokines, stimulate synovial cells to proliferate.

The increase in synovial cells and immune cells creates a pannus, which is a thick, swollen synovial membrane with granulation or scar tissue, made up of fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and inflammatory cells.



Over time, the pannus can damage cartilage and other soft tissues and also erode bone.


Activated synovial cells also secrete proteases which break down the proteins in the articular cartilage.

Without the protective cartilage, the underlying bones are exposed and can directly rub against one another.

In addition, inflammatory cytokines increase a protein on the surface of T- cells, known as RANKL or receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand. RANKL allows the T-cells to bind RANK, a protein on the surface of osteoclasts, to get them to start breaking down bone.


Meanwhile, antibodies also enter the joint space.

One antibody is called rheumatoid factor, or RF, which is an IgM antibody that targets the constant Fc domain of altered IgG antibodies.

Another antibody is anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody, or CCP, which targets citrullinated proteins.

When these antibodies bind to their targets, they form immune complexes which accumulate in the synovial fluid.

There, they activate the complement system, a family of 9 small proteins that work in an enzymatic cascade to promote joint inflammation and injury.

Finally the chronic inflammation causes angiogenesis, or the formation of new blood vessels around the joint, which allows even more inflammatory cells to arrive.

As the disease progresses, multiple joints on both sides of the body get inflamed and gradually destroyed.

But these inflammatory cytokines don’t just stay within the tight joint space.

Instead, they escape through the bloodstream and reach multiple organ systems causing extra-articular problems, meaning problems beyond the joint space.


For example, interleukin-1 or -6 travel to the brain, where they act as pyrogens, inducing fever.

In skeletal muscle, they promote protein breakdown and in the skin, as well as in many visceral organs, they lead to the formation of rheumatoid nodules, which are round- shaped collections of macrophages and lymphocytes with a central area of necrosis, or tissue death.

Blood vessels can also be affected.

Their walls get inflamed, resulting in various forms of vasculitis and make them prone to developing atheromatous or fibrofatty plaques.

In response to inflammatory cytokines, the liver also starts producing high amounts of hepcidin, a protein that decreases serum iron levels by inhibiting its absorption by the gut and trapping it into macrophages or liver cells.

Meanwhile, within the lung interstitium, fibroblasts get activated and proliferate, causing fibrotic or scar tissue that makes it harder for the alveolar gas exchange, while also the pleural cavities surrounding the lungs can get inflamed, filling up with fluid, known as pleural effusion, and this can sometimes mess with lung expansion.

Rheumatoid arthritis typically involve multiple joints, usually five or more, symmetrically, meaning the same joint groups on both sides of the body, like both hands for instance. Commonly affected joints are the small joints like metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints of the hands, and the metatarsophalangeal joints of the feet.

As the disease worsens, it can start to affect large joints like the shoulders, elbows, knees and ankles.

During “flares” or sudden worsening of the disease, the affected joints get extremely swollen, warm, red, and painful.

Over time, they become stiff, especially in the morning or after being inactive for a prolonged period of time.

People with rheumatoid arthritis may develop specific deformities, usually of the metacarpophalangeal joints in the hand, such as ulnar deviation of the fingers.

Deformities are also common in the interphalangeal joints, such as the so- called boutonniere or buttonhole deformity.

This occurs when the extensor tendon in the back of the finger splits and the head of the proximal phalanges pokes through like a button through a buttonhole, causing flexion of the proximal interphalangeal joint and hyperextension of distal interphalangeal joint.

Another finger deformity is the swan neck deformity, which is the opposite, so there’s hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal joint and flexion of the distal interphalangeal joint.

Now, in the knee joint, a one-way value can form, with fluid from the swollen knee filling the semi-membranous bursa.

When that happens, the synovial sac can get so swollen that it bulges posteriorly into the popliteal fossa, creating a synovial fluid-filled cyst, called a Baker or popliteal cyst.

Now, extra- articular manifestations include non-specific symptoms of inflammation, such as fever, low appetite, malaise or muscle weakness, and organ- specific, manifistations include rheumatoid nodules or firm bumps of tissue, and these most commonly in the skin around pressure points, such as the elbows.

More rarely, in the lungs, the heart, or the sclera of the eye.

There’s also an increased risk of atherosclerosis and therefore, heart attack or stroke.

There’s also anemia, interstitial lung fibrosis and pleural effusions, which can present as progressive shortness of breath.

One particularly serious condition that’s associated with rheumatoid arthritis is Felty syndrome which is a triad of rheumatoid arthritis, splenomegaly, and granulocytopenia, and it can lead to life-threatening infections.

Diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis usually involves confirmatory blood tests, like looking for the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide antibody. Additionally, imaging studies, such as X- ray, usually reveal decreased bone density around affected joints, soft tissue swelling, narrowing of the joint space, and bony erosions.

The long term management of rheumatoid arthritis is use of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic medications like methotrexate, hydroxychloroquine, sulfasalazine, and which can help to suppress the inflammation. In addition, there are a variety of medications called biologic response modifiers or biologics. Some biologics, such as abatacept, work by suppressing the activity of T cells, or others, such as rituximab suppress B cells.

There are also biologics such as adalimumab, etanercept, and infliximab, that block various chemokines like tumor necrosis factor.

Anakinra blocks interleukin 1 which is blocked by, and tocilizumab blocks interleukin 6.

Treatment of acute flares can be done with anti- inflammatory medications like NSAIDS as well as short term use of glucocorticoids.

To conclude, rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disorder of autoimmune origin that is primarily characterized by progressive, symmetric joint destruction, especially in the wrists and fingers, but may also affect other joints and many organs, such as the skin, heart, blood vessels and lungs.

It’s marked by elevated rheumatoid factor and anti- cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies..

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What is chlamydia?

Symptoms of Chlamydia – The Differences Between Women and Men


Chlamydia is a disease caused by a bacterial infection.

It can be transmitted by oral, vaginal, or anal sex with someone who is already infected.

For some people there are no symptoms, but if you do have symptoms they’ll generally show up anywhere from one to three weeks after you’ve been exposed.

Read on to learn more about the symptoms you might experience with chlamydia infection.

They can vary from person to person but there are some general symptoms that are fairly common.

One important thing to remember is that symptoms for women and men can be quite different.

This is because of differences in female and male anatomy.

Symptoms for Women

Chlamydia can be a silent STD for women.  In fact 3 out of 4 women have no symptoms.

When that happens, the infection can be causing damage to the female reproductive system and the woman might not realize it until she experiences problems with fertility or pregnancy.

For those women who do experience symptoms, there are some that show up more often than others.

For example, a woman may notice an abnormal vaginal discharge than could have an unpleasant odor.

Women also sometimes experience pain during urination.  The rectal area of the body can also experience pain, bleeding, or an unusual discharge.

And finally, it’s possible to have an inflamed eye or eyes as a result of chlamydia.

Still there are other symptoms that occur even more rarely.  For example, unusual bleeding between periods can occur.

A woman may also experience pain in the lower back or abdomen.  She may also have pain during sex.

Nausea, a sore throat, and vomiting can be symptoms of chlamydia as well.

Illustration of pathogens of sexually transmitted infections

Symptoms for Men

As in women, chlamydia can be a silent infection in men.  At least half of all men experience no symptoms at all.  However, in the other half of men there are some symptoms.

Any type of abnormal discharge from the penis could indicate a sexually transmitted infection of chlamydia, among several possible diseases.

Pain during urination is also a common symptom.

Men who are infected with chlamydia may also experience rectal pain, bleeding, or an unusual rectal discharge.

Inflamed eyes can also be indicators of chlamydia.  It is possible but less common to experience testicular pain and swelling.

Men with chlamydia may also experience a sore throat or itching and burning on the tip of the penis at or around the opening of the urethra.

Screening and Treatment

The good news is that with treatment, chlamydia can be cured in both women and men using antibiotics.

But if you don’t get screening, you won’t know that you need the medication.

If you’re engaging in unprotected sex with someone who has been diagnosed with chlamydia it’s important to get screened.

And if you’re engaging in unprotected sex regularly with anyone other than a monogamous partner, it’s a good idea to get tested at least once  a year for chlamydia even if you don’t know you’ve been exposed.

Chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the world.

Sexually transmitted infection.

And you might recall from our conversation about gonorrhea, chlamydia often co-infects with gonorrhea, or they tend to occur together.

Now there are several species of chlamydia that exist, but when we talk about the most common STI that’s responsible for the disease chlamydia, we’re talking about chlamydia trachomotuis, trachomotuis.

And the way it gets this name, trachoma is the term for the eye infection that occurs with chlamydia, as we’ll talk about in a minute.

Now with any sexually transmitted infection we have to consider the mechanism by which the infection spreads from one person to another.

And that process is called transmission, and there are several ways that chlamydia is transmitted from one person to another.

Sex is the most common way and that can include oral sex, vaginal sex and anal sex.

Childbirth is another important mechanism for transmission, as we’ll talk about in a few minutes.

And finally one of the unique ways that we can transmit chlamydia that we can’t with many other sexually transmitted infections is with direct contact.

Because chlamydia can only live outside of a human host for about a few seconds to a minute.

So direct contact means something like scratching an infected organ of the body, say part of the genitalia, and then directly touching another part of the body like the eye.

This doesn’t count for one person touching another person directly and spreading the infection.

That’s very rare and unlikely to occur. Direct contact means to spread from a person to another part of that same person’s body.

And we’ll talk about that in the case of conjunctivitis or an eye infection of chlamydia.

So now let’s move this list off to the side, and focus on my poor friend right here, who’s going to have all the different signs and symptoms you can get with chlamydia.

Now as I mentioned already, chlamydia is mainly spread through sex.

So why don’t we start by focusing on the sexual organs right here, which I’ve drawn out already.

And I want to label this side as the female.

So right here is the urethra, right here is the entrance to the vagina, the vagina, which leads up here to the cervix, the cervix.

And I won’t label it here but this is the anus and this leads up to the rectum and the rest of your lower gastrointestinal tract.

And on this side we have the male that starts with the penis, the testicle, the prostate, the bladder, the urethra, and I’ll label the rest of this in a minute.

But let’s focus here on the female.

Now let’s say for instance that this female is infected by a male, and so here’s a chlamydia trachomotuis bacterium that’s making its way into the vagina. And I’ll just label this as our key up here, that’s what I’m going to draw chlamydia to look that.

And from here the chlamydia will multiply and spread further up the genital tract on it’s way to the cervix. And the same thing can occur with the urethra nearby.

Perhaps we can have chlamydia spread up this way and into the urethra.

And the interesting thing about chlamydia is that it’s predominantly an intracellular organism, or an intracellular bacterium, which just means that it likes to live within a cell.

Which in this case means, the human host cell or the epithelial cells that line the vagina, or the epithelial cells that line the urethra.

Now the symptoms that we have that are associated with chlamydia are due to the white blood cells that come and attack the bacterium.

What they do is that they’ll notice that there are chlamydia inside of these epithelial cells, and they will target the cells that are infected to cause a process that’s called apoptosis, apoptosis; which is the very neat and organized killing of a specifically selected cell.

So it’s cell death that is programmed by the white blood cell.

we usually don’t have a single chlamydia bacterium that comes to infect the genital tract or the urinary tract.

You’re going to have many of these guys that are inoculated or spread into the tract.

So there’s going to be, as a result, a lot of white blood cells that come from the blood stream to the genital or the urinary tract to attack the infected epithelial cells or any chlamydia they can eat up that’s outside of the cells at the time.

And when all these white blood cells show up from the blood stream and go to the genital or the urinary tract where they’re not suppose to usually be, we get this process of inflammation. Inflammation, and that’s what causes us the swelling, the burning, and the general pain that’s associated with a chlamydia infection.

That means that at the urethra when it gets infected, you have urethritis, urethritis.

And the burning sensation you have when you pee is called is dysuria, which just means uria referring to the urinary tract and dys meaning some complication or something that’s out of whack, or has a disorder, dysuria.

The same can be said for an infection of the epithelial cells that line the vagina, resulting in vaginitis or if they go further up here to the cervix, you get cervicitis, cervicitis.

And just like there’s a term for painful urination, there’s a term for painful sex or intercourse.

And that’s called dys, which means disorder again pareunia, dyspareunia.

Where pareunia just means the act of intercourse or sex. Now there are a lot of similarities that you can draw here in the case of the male.

So say if we have some of the chlamydia bacteria spreading up the urethra, the urethra.

That’ll cause urethritis.

Or if it spreads up here to the prostate, this pink guy over here that’s the prostate, you can get prostatitis, prostatitis.

Now the one thing I should mention that’s different in the case of the female versus the male is that there’s an opening from the uterus into the abdominal cavity through the fallopian tubes.

And so if the chlamydia spreads so far up through the cervix in to the uterus and out the fallopian tubes, they can actually seed or spread into the abdominal cavity.

And this happens as well with gonorrhea and the term we use for this type of infection is called pelvic inflammatory, pelvic inflammatory disease.

Pelvic inflammatory disease or PID. And there are several other complications that can occur because of having PID, and we’ll talk about that in a separate video.

And I’ve run out of space to show it here but another very telltale sign of a sexually transmitted infection, especially when white blood cells are coming from the blood stream to attack the infected epithelial cells and the bacteria, you’re going to have that apoptosis or that cell death that occurs along the way.

And so, the dead epithelial cells, the dead white blood cells and even the bacteria will come out of the tip of the penis from the urethra or from the urethra in the female.

And what you’ll actually see is pus. So you’re going to have, what can also be referred to as a creamy, purulent discharge or just pus that represents the dead white blood cells, epithelial cells and bacteria that are being essentially peed away. Now from the genitals, chlamydia can spread into the blood stream to go elsewhere in the body.

And there are a couple of very classic places it shows up. One place it can spread from the blood stream, right here is the eye.

So I’ve drawn this gentleman’s eye down over here and he’s looking downward.

And remember, as I mentioned just now, in addition to spreading from the blood stream, chlamydia can also spread from direct contact into the eye.

Let’s say if there’s some pus that’s discharged and a person is confused about why that’s coming out and they touch it with their finger and then rub their eye, you can directly spread chlamydia into the eye.

And it starts by affecting this reddish portion right here, and that’s called the conjunctiva, the conjunctiva; which is just a fancy name for the inside of the eyelid.

Now if the chlamydia spreads here, what you’re going to start seeing are these bumps that occur on the conjunctiva, on the inside of the eyelid.

And these bumps will accumulate and start scratching on the eye. And when they scratch on the eye they’re going to start causing irritation here as well.

And so, the conjunctiva which is infected can be referred to as conjunctivitis.

But once you start irritating the white of the eye over here you may actually even spread the infection over the pupil here, to cause what’s called an opacity.

Which just means this whitening over the pupil that makes it difficult for you to see.

And this is what is referred to as trachoma, trachoma; which is the most common cause of blindness in the developing world. Another site that can be affected from the blood stream are your joints.

So this knee right here can be infected.

So we refer to this specifically as infective arthritis, infective arthritis. I’ll write arthritis here a little more in the middle, infective arthritis.

Which is exactly what you would imagine the chlamydia spreads from the blood stream into your joint capsule right here. This white layer is bone, here’s bone as well.

And this grey portion is the articular cartilage, or the cartilage that separates the bones from each other.

And in between in the joint capsule or this synovial cavity is this fluid, it’s referred to as synovial fluid, that sort of helps the bones move on top of each other smoothly.

So remember as chlamydia makes it into any part of the body, not just in the joint, but also the urethra, you’re going to have white blood cells that come right after it. And these guys are chasing it with a vengeance. and so you’re going to have those telltale signs of inflammation occurring here in the joint as well.

And I’m sure you can imagine that having a ton of white blood cells here within the joint makes it very difficult for you to have smooth movement if, in addition to the fluid, you’ve got these white blood cells and now you’ve got some chlamydia that’s here.

You’re going to have a lot of pain and difficulty moving. And the term for painful joints is dysarthria, dysarthria; which dys again means some type of disorder and arthria refers to the joint, dysarthria.

Now a unique thing about chlamydia is that in addition to infective arthritis, you can also have something that’s referred to as reactive arthritis, reactive arthritis.

And this is a very distinct beast from ineffective arthritis, in that reactive arthritis is the result of the antibodies that you make.

So I’ll just write AB for antibodies.

The antibodies that you’re suppose to make against the chlamydia; which for some reason in this case will attack both the chlamydia trachomotuis as well as the joint for some reason.

So reactive arthritis is the result of antibodies that are suppose to attack the chlamydia, for some reason mistaking proteins in the joint for the same proteins that are on the chlamydia and traveling to the joint to attack it as well.

And when antibodies flow into some space, the similar thing happens as what we saw here with infection arthritis.

White blood cells will also rush to the site to help the antibodies attack whatever it is they’re attacking.

And unfortunately in this case, those include proteins that are naturally found in the joint capsule.

This is a really unusual phenomenon that occurs and it’s sometimes associated with chlamydia.

And in fact has its own name or syndrome, this is called Reiter’s Syndrome, Reiter’s Syndrome.

And it can be best remembered by this popular mnemonic, where if you have Reiter’s Syndrome, you can’t see because you’ve got trachoma like you do here.

You can’t pee, because you have urethritis.

And then on top of that you can’t even climb a tree, because you’ve got reactive arthritis.

Now in addition to Reiter’s Syndrome if you have an infected mother, she can spread chlamydia to her newborn child.

And have something like this occur, and this is referred to as neonatal chlamydia, neonatal chlamydia.

And first off you might notice here the crusting of the eye; which is similar to something we already talked about, this is conjunctivitis.

But you can also see pneumonia in an infected newborn.

And depending on how much the chlamydia will multiply and spread to the baby in the uterus, you may also have premature labor.

So the baby will be delivered earlier than they should be, or even death. Which is why it’s important for pregnant women to be checked for chlamydia.

Because this disorder can be completely preventable..

As found on Youtube


What You Need to Know About Chlamydia



Chlamydia: The most common sexually transmitted disease.


Bobby Lazzara and the doctor is in today’s topic chlamydia chlamydia what is chlamydia chlamydia is the most common sexually transmitted disease caused by bacteria bacteria it’s called chlamydia.

Why is it important it’s important because left untreated in women it can lead to significant problems pelvic inflammatory disease an infection involving the female reproductive organs also referred to as PID as a result of that there can be scarring of the reproductive organs the resultant pregnancies that may occur could be ectopic that is occurring outside of the womb this is very dangerous therefore chlamydia needs to be treated.

What are the symptoms of Chlamydia

It can be very very very silent symptoms may be minimal in women there may be some vaginal discharge there may be some pain on urination perhaps pain on intercourse in men there may be some discharge from the penis or maybe there may be some pain on urination sometimes there may be no symptoms at all.

Who’s at risk for chlamydia

Any sexually active adult particularly young patients therefore the recommendation is that women should be screened for chlamydia if they are young and sexually active the diagnosis can be made by your doctor utilizing a variety of tests very simple what’s important is that chlamydia can be treated can be eradicated with antibiotics prescribed by your doctor.

today’s topic chlamydia I’m dr.Bobby Lazzara and the doctor is in.


Aussie flu

Aussie flu – Killer flu ‘ARRIVES’ in UK as ‘WORST outbreak in 50 years’ hits 1,000 Brits

Since December, the headlines have been full of horror stories about the aggressive Aussie flu and it’s now reached epidemic proportions.

Not only have 1,938 people been hospitalized but, shockingly, 93 people have died -including 18-year-old Bethany Walker from Scotland, who made headlines last week when she passed away from pneumonia, caused by the illness.


Aussie flu is similar to regular flu – except more severe. You can be diagnosed via a swab test at your local A&E, but look out for body aches, coughing, exhaustion, fever, headaches, congestion, a sore throat, vomiting and diarrhea. Usually flu clears up by itself with the help of rest, sleep and drinking lots of water.

However, seek help from your GP if problems persist for over a week, you’re worried about your child’s symptoms, you have a long-term medical condition or are pregnant.

Patients are advised not to call 999 or go to A&E unless they develop a sudden chest pain, have trouble breathing or start coughing blood. The vast majority of people who catch it recover in 7-10 days. Vulnerable people are also urged to get a flu jab. And you can prevent the virus spreading by washing hands regularly.

the following story of a family having the Aussie flue, Tiffany Sherlock, 44 – who lives in Salisbury with her partner, Brent Woodbridge, 49, a finance worker, and their daughter, Lyra, three – says her whole family has been infected by the virus.

Tiffany explains, “I first got ill at the start of November. My mother-in-law had visited while she had flu and, within a matter of days, I had a raging temperature, headaches and was exhausted. I ached so badly that I had to get on my hands and knees before I coughed so I could cope with the searing pain in my back and ribs.

“I couldn’t even pick up Lyra because I was in too much pain. Lying in bed, I couldn’t bear the thought of going back to my job at a charity, where I’d been working for six months, because I was too exhausted – so as crazy as it sounds I actually decided to quit.

“My boss thought I was delusional, but I’d been thinking about quitting for a while-Aussie flu just made me realise that i I needed to do it sooner rather than later.

“To make things worse, four days I  later, my little girl caught the bug and, a few weeks later, my partner, Brent, did too. Lyra was being sick all the time.

We were both really worried -she’d never been like that before.

“We didn’t realize how serious it was, so we didn’t go to A&E. But, eventually, I went to see a doctor, who confirmed I had flu.

After doing some research, I realized it was the Aussie strain,

“They told me that no air was reaching the bottom of my lungs and gave me two courses of antibiotics and an inhaler.

However, I was left with a lung infection and it was another two weeks before I started to feel better.

“We’d booked to go on holiday to Center Pares, but Lyra was still so poorly, we didn’t want her to mix with the other children and she spent most of the time feeling too unwell to enjoy anything.

“After seeing how many people have died from the illness, I just feel glad to be alive. It’s very sobering to think what could have happened if I hadn’t gone to the doctors when I did.

“Now my two elderly parents, aged 75 and 79, have also been infected. I’m extremely relieved they’re OK now because I know older people are at risk.

“My sympathy goes out to anyone who has Aussie flu and I’d advise them to get rest and medical advice as soon as possible.

Killer flu reaches UK as worst outbreak in 50 years’ hits 1,000 Brits in 7 days.

The Aussie Flu is believed to be gripping the UK amid fears it will be the worst outbreak in 50 years.

In the last seven days alone 1,111 people have been hit by flu – a shocking increase of 156%. And experts believe this suggests the killer strain, called H3N2, has arrived.

The Royal Liverpool is among Britain’s hospitals which has seen a sudden hike in flu admissions.

Down Under it has killed 300 people and affected 170,000 as carnage swept Australian hospitals in one of the country’s largest outbreaks.

The terrifying strain mainly affects older people, those with long-term health conditions, pregnant women and children. And worryingly its symptoms are identical to those of a normal flu – sore throat, headache, fever, muscle ache, runny nose, sneezing and fatigue.

Only with this mutated strain the symptoms are much more severe, and if it persists for longer than a week, it’s potentially Aussie Flu.

The fatal disease, which can be fought with rest, sleep, keeping warm, taking paracetamol or ibuprofen and drinking plenty of water, can lead to pneumonia and other potentially deadly health complications.

Nick Phin, of Public Health England, told The Sun there is no real confirmation Aussie Flu has arrived yet, but said the best way to avoid catching Aussie Flu is to get the flu jab. He said: Flu activity, as measured by a number of different systems, has continued to increase in the last week or two.

This is to be expected as the season progresses and at this point the numbers are in-keeping with previous years.

The circulating flu strains match those in the current flu vaccine, so the vaccine remains the best defense against the virus.

Experts have been warning the Aussie flu could be more dangerous than the 1968 flu pandemic that killed more than a million worldwide.

Public health expert Professor Robert Dingwall, of Nottingham Trent University, previously told BT.com: The reports from Australia suggest the UK might be in for the worst winter flu season for many years.

the flu virus infects millions of people across the world every single year at the moment in the UK were at the peak season for flu and it can be very contagious and very serious in vulnerable people like babies or the elderly but for most people it tends not to be serious at all.

The NHS they would recommend that vulnerable people do get a vaccine they’re saying that it’s not too late to get a vaccine at this point during the season some people think that the vaccine will actually give them flu that it can make them ill but it isn’t a live virus so it doesn’t make you feel the illness that you feel is simply your immune system kicking in

It’s the World Health Organization who decide every year the three strains that will go into the vaccine it’s normally the virus that is doing the rounds that season that goes into the vaccine and there’s great debate at the moment about how effective the flu vaccine is or can be but it really depends on the year so last year the flu vaccine was very effective in the under 65’s but not so effective in the over 60 finds the NHS that would say you must still get a vaccine if you’re in the vulnerable group because it’s better to have a jab than not to.

Antibiotics will not help get rid of the virus they simply don’t work the best way of getting over the flu is to rest to drink lots of fluids and to take paracetamol and also the way to contain it and to stop contracting it is to put your hand over your mouth when you cough will you sneeze and to wash your hands regularly because the virus can live on surfaces many surfaces for many many hours.

Welcome to Dr. David Eifrig’s Health & Wealth Bulletin. This is Weekly Update. Right now, we’re in the midst of one of the worst flu seasons on record.

In fact, about cases out of every 100,000 hospitalizations are because of the flu.

That’s one of the highest numbers that we’ve seen. Unfortunately, we still have about 11 to 13 weeks left, meaning that this flu season can get even worse.

Already, we have 30 children who have died of the flu in the U.S. and the number of adults is still untold. We won’t really know until the end of flu season.

Now the reason the flu is so dangerous is because of how quickly it mutates. So the flu virus comes in one of three types.

There’s type A, type B, and type C.

Type A is the most dangerous – that’s the one that’s responsible for so many epidemics like we’re seeing right now.

So that’s the kind we’re going to focus on today. Now the flu virus gets its name from two proteins on the outer shell of its envelope.

There’s the H protein and the N protein.

The H protein, hemagglutinin, comes in 18 different types.

The N protein, neuraminidase, comes in 11 different types.

Now these two proteins are important because they both help determine how infectious the flu is and how quickly it can spread once it’s inside your body.

The combinations of these two are why we get different strains like H1N1 or H3N2, which is what we’re seeing right now.

Now H3N2 is one of the most dangerous types out there because of how quickly it spreads and how many complications it can bring.

Now this might also be why we’re seeing such low effective rates for the vaccine.

Here in the U.S. they’re estimating about a 30% effectiveness, but in places like Australia, it’s only about 10% effective.

Now, one thing to keep in mind is: don’t let this dissuade you from really getting your flu shot every year.

In fact, one study out of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences demonstrated that getting your flu shot actually lessens the severity of your symptoms.

They looked at a group of folks who had the flu, about 72% of whom were vaccinated.

Those who’d been vaccinated had a far lower chance of having a fever, they had fewer upper respiratory problems, and overall their symptoms were far less severe.

This is very important because we want to make sure we get as much protection as we can, even if we do get the flu.

Another point to keep in mind here is that about 80 to 85% of all children every year who die from the flu were not vaccinated, so it’s especially critical to get your flu shot if you’re a child, if you’re an adult over 65, or if you’re someone with a compromised immune system because you certainly need that help fighting off the flu.

So if you’re having symptoms of the flu, it’s important to know if you have the flu or simply another cold.

Remember, the cold is also a virus, so it’s very similar in the way it presents. In fact, both colds and flu give you a cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, headaches, fatigue, sometimes even fever.

But it’s important to remember that colds usually come with a stuffy and a runny nose and they come over a period of time – you can feel yourself getting sick.

With the flu, the key is a very rapid onset of symptoms.

If this is the case for you, you certainly want to go to your doctor and talk to them, especially if you’re in one of these immune compromised groups.

If that’s the case, your doctor may recommend antiviral medications.

These are special medicines designed to fight the flu but they’re only really effective if given within the first 48 hours.

That’s why keeping an eye on your symptoms and getting help immediately is really important.

Living with STI

Got STI / STD: Who, What and When to Reveal

If you’ve been diagnosed with an STI, you may be concerned about who finds out and what your obligations are when it comes to reporting your infection to previous sexual partners. You may also be concerned that this information will become public and affect your in areas such as your career, ability to get health insurance, and your relationships in social circles.

Testing and Confidentiality

First it’s important to know that when you have anonymous testing, no one but you will know that you have been diagnosed.

If you have confidential testing with a health clinic that information can become part of your medical record and your insurance company can be notified.

In some cases this isn’t a big deal. For example, if you have a bacterial infection that is easily treated this is less of an issue.

However, if you have something that can’t be cured and may require expensive treatment such as HIV, it may be important to keep that out of your medical record in order to avoid the status of a preexisting condition.

The healthcare laws are constantly changing, so it’s important to read up on the current legislation before making the decision to go from anonymous to confidential testing.

Health Department Notification

When you test positive for an STD, that information is generally reported to the local health department. However, your personal information is detached from any information about your disease status.

This information helps health departments to understand how many people in a specific area are infected with specific diseases. Having this knowledge informs funding for prevention, testing, and treatment.

Partner Notification

One of the most anxiety producing but important consideration is partner notification.

This is the process of letting people know they may have been exposed to an STI because of contact with you. No one enjoys this part.

However, it’s important that people who may have been infected have the opportunity to be tested and treated as soon as possible.

There are a couple of ways to do this. First, you can contact previous and current partners directly.

For some people it’s possible to do this with very little emotional guilt or baggage.

However, in some cases this approach carries the risk of setting off anger and can even put one in danger.
If you feel that it isn’t safe to notify a current or previous partner, one way you can still do the right thing is to allow the health department to perform partner notification.

They will ask you to list all partners who may have been exposed along with each person’s contact information.

Then the health department will take the responsibility of notifying your partners without revealing who the infected person is.

They will simply tell them that someone they have had a sexual relationship with has tested positive.

In some cases this will prevent one from knowing your identity but if a person has had limited partners he or she may be able to deduce that it is you.

The earlier you allow your partners to find out, the better off they will be when it comes to their own personal health and it can also prevent their future partners from infecting even more people.

Sexually transmitted diseases are getting worse in the United States, increasing for the third year, with 2016 reaching an all-time high.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and data analysis by www.backgroundchecks.org here are the ten most sexually diseased states in America:

  1. Alaska
  2. Mississippi
  3. Louisiana
  4. Georgia
  5. New Mexico
  6. North Carolina
  7. South Carolina
  8. Arkansas
  9. Delaware
  10. Oklahoma

The ten least sexually diseased states are:

  1. Vermont
  2. New Hampshire
  3. West Virginia
  4. Maine
  5. Utah
  6. Idaho
  7. Wyoming
  8. Connecticut
  9. Massachusetts
  10. New Jersey

The state moving up the highest in the rankings [as most Infections]

  • Maryland, jumping up six spots from #24 to #18, owing to significantly elevated rates of both gonorrhea and chlamydia.
  • Next is Delaware, climbing five spots from #14 to #9.
  • There is a four-way tie between Georgia (#4), Indiana (#23), Virginia (#25) and North Dakota (#26) for third greatest increase as they all moved up three places in the rankings.
  • Hawaii experienced the greatest drop in the rankings, falling eight spots from #20 to #28 due to a decrease in the chlamydia rate per 100k residents.
  • Three states–Texas (#16),
  • Tennessee (#22),
  • Michigan (#27)–fell four spots each,
  • While three others–North Carolina (#6), Colorado (#30), Vermont (#50)–went down three spots.

STIs in all categories have seen an increase:

Chlamydia: 4.7 percent rate increase since 2015

Gonorrhea: 18.5 percent rate increase since 2015

Primary and Secondary Syphilis: 17.6 percent rate increase since 2015

Congenital Syphilis: 27.6 percent rate increase since 2015

“Increases in STDs are a clear warning of a growing threat,” said Dr. Jonathan Mermin, director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. “STDs are a persistent enemy, growing in number, and outpacing our ability to respond.”

The rise in primary and secondary syphilis over the last 17 years is primarily attributable to increases among men, specifically homosexuals.

“In 2016, men accounted for almost 90% of all cases of P&S syphilis,” the report says. “Of those male cases for whom sex of sex partner was known, 80.6% were men who have sex with men. … half of men who have sex with men diagnosed with syphilis were also living with HIV.”

The same is true with gonorrhea:

“While gonorrhea increased among men and women in 2016, the steepest increases were seen among men (22 percent). Research suggests that a large share of new gonorrhea cases are occurring among MSM [men who have sex with men]. These trends are particularly alarming in light of the growing threat of drug resistance to the last remaining recommended gonorrhea treatment.”

Top 5 Sick STI Facts

hi welcome to watchmojo.com it will be counting down the top five facts you probably didn’t know about sexually transmitted infections in england they called it fear not will be avoiding any super graphic images right next.

if you’re wondering what happened to calling them STDs or sexually transmitted diseases well most of the medical world has transitioned away from the term because STI is more accurate not every infection becomes a disease after all that’s pretty fair guys catch knowledge number five STI is maybe the original cause of monogamy it kind of makes sense that getting warts all over your junk might lead to having fewer sexual partners but not like this turns out the polygamy was much more common when prehistoric humans lived in small hunter-gatherer groups I just wanna lay with her so badly but then agriculture came along and relationships started to change as social groups became larger STI ‘s became a bigger barrier to reproduction you’ll likely go steady with several different girls before you begin to think seriously about marriage.

Oh who’s thinking about getting married new research from the University of Waterloo suggests that cultures with taboos on promiscuity likely increased in population quicker than cultures with polygamy as a norm simply because they were less likely to suffer from STD is that cause infertility like syphilis chlamydia and gonorrhea so I guess we can blame farming for ending the free love party thanks a lot wheat

I just want to do something useful with my life so farming creating people that that’s not useful number four you can get sti’s without having unprotected sex you guys look what I found in the trash can of Stan’s bathroom it’s like a bloody cotton saying rats and toilet paper well why did you pull it out of the trash because I thought it’s a jelly doughnut but check it out it’s all bloody STI is can be even trickier than you might expect to start with well it’s difficult for most of them to live on inanimate objects it does sometimes happen you can get an STI from an unsterilized Brazilian wax and crabs can live in a bed without a host for up to 48 hours the herpes virus can be spread via lip balm and has also been found in tanning beds you can even get an STI called trichomoniasis through a moist towel and even hand stuff and dry-humping can have risks condoms are still 100% recommended and generally very effective but won’t necessarily prevent the skin on skin contact that can spread genital herpes let’s just go on home shall we ank you’re the boss you sure you won’t mind course on mine don’t take that as an endorsement of an abstinence only approach along with condoms the best method of prevention is to communicate with your sexual partners and to get tested regularly you just had unprotected anal sex with our girl I’m all certainly dead and she loved it she’s got HIV cute girls don’t get HIV

America has the highest STI rate in the developed world a US field but but blistering sinful malady that a few of you may already have come in contact there are an estimated 20 million new STI cases every year which cost Americans at least 16 billion dollars for treatment this number doesn’t even include HIV and AIDS treatments which are hugely expensive experts say this is partly because there is a lot of misinformation about sex education in general and very little funding for STI prevention in the United States meanwhile the federal government has spent billions on abstinence only sex education so you must be strong and resist for those who are weak well no doubt one day burn and fester in the swollen vd infested fiery pits of hell the US isn’t the only Western country seeing a rise in STD is in a Canadian province of Alberta new gonorrhea cases rose percent in 2015 while syphilis cases more than double the provinces chief medical officer blames social media presumably tinder for the rise we don’t have the heart to tell them it’s herpes not herpes if it’s everywhere number two doctors used malaria to treat syphilis it was called pyro therapy doctors believed that the fever caused by malaria would raise the body temperature hot enough to kill the syphilis after the syphilis had died off they would start to manage the malaria for which they already had effective treatments crazy thing is that pyro therapy kind of worked half of the patients who underwent this treatment have their condition improved and half of those who improve went into full remission 15% of patients died of complications from malaria but many thought it was worth the risk at the time contracting syphilis was usually a death sentence that guaranteed a slow descent into madness don’t mind if I do.

Julius Wagner your egg the man who came up with the process even won the Nobel Prize for his treatment before becoming a notorious anti-semite and eugenicist whomp-whomp well now we know and knowing is half the battle number one you can probably thank Columbus for syphilis first we finish him then we sail back to Spain question executioner the first documented syphilis epidemic was in about three years after Columbus got lost and discovered America this disease would wreak havoc in Europe for almost four and a half centuries the theory that it came back to Europe with Columbus and Coe has long been disputed but a comprehensive study published in 2011 seems to have put the debate to rest the advent of antibiotics in the 20th century made the disease curable disease rates are exploding in the US and in the UK they rose 76 percent between 2012 and 2015 some blame the rise on funding cuts to public health initiatives others blame imperialism thanks a lot Columbus the men talk of throwing you to the Sharks if you don’t listen to reason so what do you think did mankind make the right choice with agriculture and monogamy I can’t believe you didn’t we’re back who does that why did we go to Costco and buy a year’s supply condoms if you weren’t gonna use a man.

Gonorrhea Myths & Facts


Gonorrhea versus Herpes Simplex Virus

Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD), and so is herpes.

These and other STDs can be detected through simple blood and lab tests.

Since they can both lead to very serious and in some cases life-threatening situations when left untreated, it makes sense to schedule an appointment with your doctor to see if you suffer from either one of these issues.

According to the World Health Organization, there are 357 million new cases of the four most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported each year, one of them being gonorrhea.

Herpes is even more pervasive.

While 67% of men and women with the herpes virus (either simplex 1 or simplex 2) will never show symptoms or have adverse effects from the infection, they can still transmit the disease.

When symptoms do appear, serious complications can arise if the situation is not treated quickly and properly.

Medical information indicates that as many as 2 in every 3 people between the ages of 15 and 50 currently have some type of herpes infection.


There are two different herpes viruses, simplex 1 (HSV-1) and simplex 2 (HSV-2).

Herpes initially appears in or around the genitals or the mouth, which leads to these infections being referred to as genital herpes and oral herpes.

As mentioned above, in most cases, you may have the herpes virus and never show any signs or symptoms.

You may not experience any negative consequences because of the virus.

Human beings have tons of bacterial and viral lifeforms inside them, and in most cases, they do not lead to any adverse health effects.

When herpes does provide symptoms, the most common sign is a red blister or sore.

These blisters can be painful, and they often burst, expelling a pus-like substance.

Herpes is highly contagious when a breakout is experienced, but can be passed to someone else even when no symptoms are present.

Oral-to-genital, genital-to-genital and oral-to-oral contact are the most common ways the herpes virus is passed from one person to another.

However, herpes can be transmitted through incidental contact.

If someone has oral herpes and drinks from a container, and then someone else drinks from that same container, the virus can be passed.

Aside from red blisters or sores, the herpes sufferer may experience an unexpected or abnormal discharge from the penis or vagina, pain during sex or while urinating, and aches and pains around the infected site.

Symptoms may also include fever and headaches, a tingling, burning sensation, fatigue and weariness.

Severe complications include encephalitis, meningitis, partial or total loss of vision, brain-based disorders and other serious health problems.

Additionally, herpes symptoms tend to flareup and to go into remission, rather than stay present over a long period of time.


This sexually transmitted disease is not always easy to spot, but it can impact your life negatively whether or not you show symptoms.

Men are generally more likely to show symptoms of gonorrhea than women. However, a woman’s ability to give birth can be severely affected by gonorrhea.

Even in the advanced medical times in which we live, gonorrhea is still responsible for stillbirths and miscarriages, and even infertility among women.

Gonorrhea is passed through oral, anal or vaginal sex, and mothers can pass gonorrhea to a newborn child.

If symptoms appear, they usually do so about 10 to 12 days after infection occurs.

Symptoms in women include painful urination and pain during sex, rectal pain, abnormal discharge of fluids, inflammation in or around the eyes, nausea, lower back pain, sore throat and bleeding between periods.

The most common gonorrhea symptoms for men include frequent and painful urination, pain in the rectum and rectal bleeding, inflamed eyes, and an abnormal discharge from the penis. Less common symptoms include an itching, burning sensation around the head of the penis, a sore throat and pain in the testicles.

Gonorrhea 101

Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted infection that is caused by bacteria.

It is very common especially in youth between the ages of 15 and 24.  It can cause infections in your throat, genitals, and rectal area.

Read on to learn how this disease can be spread, how you can prevent it, symptoms, complications, and how to treat it.

Gonorrhea Transmission

Gonorrhea can be transmitted by having sex with someone who has it.  This can be oral, anal, or vaginal sex.

It can also be transmitted from a pregnant woman to her developing baby during childbirth, but not during pregnancy.

Gonorrhea Prevention

If you want to avoid becoming infected with gonorrhea there are a few things you can do.

First, you should know that the only way to totally prevent any STD transmission is to not have sex, including oral, anal and vaginal sex.

However, if you want to remain sexually active you can take steps to reduce your risk of infection.

First, you’re less likely to become infected if you’re in a mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who is not infected.

The only way to know for sure if either of you is infected is to be tested, so it’s a good idea to be tested before beginning any new sexual relationship.

The next step toward preventing gonorrhea transmission is to use condoms correctly and consistently.

That means using the condom every time you have any type of sexual intercourse.

Gonorrhea Symptoms

Gonorrhea can have no symptoms for the majority of people who are infected.

In fact, most women don’t have any symptoms at all or if they do have symptoms they mistake it for some other type of infection.

If you do have symptoms, they may include a burning sensation while urinating, an unusual discharge from the vagina or the penis, and for men painful or swollen testicles and in women vaginal bleeding between periods.

If you have a rectal gonorrhea infection, you may experience an unusual rectal discharge, itching, bleeding, and soreness of the anus as well as painful bowel movements.

If you have any symptoms it’s important to talk with your healthcare provider right away.

But if you find out a partner has been infected, you should talk with your healthcare provider even if you’re symptom free.

Complications from Gonorrhea

If gonorrhea goes untreated, it can cause permanent damage to both men and women.

In women, it can cause pelvic inflammatory disease.  This condition can cause permanent infertility and abdominal pain.

In men, the epididymis can become inflamed and become attached to the testicles.

It can also cause sterility.

Infection can also make you more susceptible to becoming infected with HIV.

While rare, if gonorrhea goes untreated for a long period of time it can spread to your joints or bloodstream.

If that happens the condition can be fatal.

Treating Gonorrhea

The good news is that gonorrhea can be easily treated by taking a course of antibiotics.

However, if your infection has gone untreated for a long period of time antibiotics will not be able to undo scar tissue and other damage.


Learn the top myths and facts about the STD gonorrhea (The Clap)

Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection and therefore it is completely curable. One of the biggest myths around gonorrhea is you would know if you had it, but gonorrhea is often asymptomatic which means it has no symptoms.

So, you might not know that you have it.

Gonorrhea tends to be more symptomatic actually in women than in men. So, women might know they have it because they might have a discharge or a burning upon urination.

Men when they have symptoms will also have the same type of symptoms. A discharge or burning upon urination.

And the only way to know that you have it is to get tested.

It is completely curable with antibiotics. A really important fact about gonorrhea is in order to get rid of it both partners need to be treated at the same time and they both need to take their full course of antibiotic in order to rid the body of the infection.

If not, it can keep passing it back and forth or pass it to other partners. Another myth about gonorrhea is that it doesn’t really exist anymore.

And that’s just not true. In certain populations especially young people it’s very much on the rise again. And gonorrhea and chlamydia are often are co-infections.

So, if someone has chlamydia they will often be infected with gonorrhea, as well.

One very important thing to note is that although gonorrhea and chlamydia are completely curable with antibiotics if left undiagnosed and untreated they can lead to infertility in both men and women.

So, it’s really important to follow a medical provider information and follow the prescription that you’re given if you are diagnosed with gonorrhea.

As found on Youtube

Gonorrhea versus Herpes Simplex Virus

Gonorrhea is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD), and so is herpes. These and other STDs can be detected through simple blood and lab tests. Since they can both lead to very serious and in some cases life-threatening situations when left untreated, it makes sense to schedule an appointment with your doctor to see if you suffer from either one of these issues.

According to the World Health Organization, there are 357 million new cases of the four most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported each year, one of them being gonorrhea.

Herpes is even more pervasive. While 67% of men and women with the herpes virus (either simplex 1 or simplex 2) will never show symptoms or have adverse effects from the infection, they can still transmit the disease. When symptoms do appear, serious complications can arise if the situation is not treated quickly and properly.

Medical information indicates that as many as 2 in every 3 people between the ages of 15 and 50 currently have some type of herpes infection.


There are two different herpes viruses, simplex 1 (HSV-1) and simplex 2 (HSV-2). Herpes initially appears in or around the genitals or the mouth, which leads to these infections being referred to as genital herpes and oral herpes. As mentioned above, in most cases, you may have the herpes virus and never show any signs or symptoms. You may not experience any negative consequences because of the virus. Human beings have tons of bacterial and viral lifeforms inside them, and in most cases, they do not lead to any adverse health effects.

When herpes does provide symptoms, the most common sign is a red blister or sore. These blisters can be painful, and they often burst, expelling a pus-like substance. Herpes is highly contagious when a breakout is experienced, but can be passed to someone else even when no symptoms are present. Oral-to-genital, genital-to-genital and oral-to-oral contact are the most common ways the herpes virus is passed from one person to another.

However, herpes can be transmitted through incidental contact.

If someone has oral herpes and drinks from a container, and then someone else drinks from that same container, the virus can be passed. Aside from red blisters or sores, the herpes sufferer may experience an unexpected or abnormal discharge from the penis or vagina, pain during sex or while urinating, and aches and pains around the infected site. Symptoms may also include fever and headaches, a tingling, burning sensation, fatigue and weariness. Severe complications include encephalitis, meningitis, partial or total loss of vision, brain-based disorders and other serious health problems.

Additionally, herpes symptoms tend to flareup and to go into remission, rather than stay present over a long period of time.


This sexually transmitted disease is not always easy to spot, but it can impact your life negatively whether or not you show symptoms. Men are generally more likely to show symptoms of gonorrhea than women. However, a woman’s ability to give birth can be severely affected by gonorrhea. Even in the advanced medical times in which we live, gonorrhea is still responsible for stillbirths and miscarriages, and even infertility among women.

Gonorrhea is passed through oral, anal or vaginal sex, and mothers can pass gonorrhea to a newborn child. If symptoms appear, they usually do so about 10 to 12 days after infection occurs. Symptoms in women include painful urination and pain during sex, rectal pain, abnormal discharge of fluids, inflammation in or around the eyes, nausea, lower back pain, sore throat and bleeding between periods.

The most common gonorrhea symptoms for men include frequent and painful urination, pain in the rectum and rectal bleeding, inflamed eyes, and an abnormal discharge from the penis. Less common symptoms include an itching, burning sensation around the head of the penis, a sore throat and pain in the testicles.

What is gonorrhea?



Of the many sexually transmitted infections, or STIs, gonorrhea is the second most common.

The most common STI is chlamydia.

Chlamydia, and we’ll talk more about chlamydia later. Right now, let’s focus on gonorrhea and why these two happen together.

These two diseases often occur together for two reasons.

First, they have similar risk factors, which include things like having multiple sexual partners and/or having frequent unprotected sex.

The other reason is that infection with one of these bugs makes your body susceptible to a second infection by dampening the immune system.

So I promise we’ll go into more detail about chlamydia later, but for now let’s talk more about gonorrhea.

It’s caused by a bug referred to as neisseria gonorrhoeae, and the reason why we call gonorrhea a sexually transmitted infection is because it undergoes this process referred to as transmission where it moves from one person to another by several mechanisms.

Most commonly, gonorrhea will be transmitted through sex, which can include:

  • oral sex
  • vaginal sex
  • sex.

Another important mechanism of transmission includes childbirth and we’ll talk more about the outcomes of that in a minute, so these are the main ways that gonorrhea can be transmitted.

Let’s move this off to the side and let’s focus instead on my poor friend over here who’s going to have all the different signs and symptoms a person can get with gonorrhea.

Now because we said the main way gonorrhea spreads from one person to the other is by sex, let’s start by focusing on signs and symptoms at our sexual organs.

So here you can see on the left I have female genitalia drawn out and on the right side, we have male genitalia drawn here.

If we were to imagine our gonorrhea infection, so I’ll use this as sort of a way to mimic gonorrhea as it spreads, perhaps you can have a female infecting a male with gonorrhea and so, because the penis is used during sex, that can actually seed or spread up the urethra.

This yellow line here, that is your urethra. We’ll go into this in more detail in another video but the gonorrhea bacteria will latch on to the walls in your urethra.

Your urethra is lined by epithelial cells, and so this bacterium will enter those cells.

That will trigger an immune response. Your white blood cells will detect that something is wrong and they’ll come up to the urethra through the blood stream to attack wherever the gonorrhea has spread. So if the gonorrhea has only entered a single epithelial cell in your urethra, it’ll cause that cell to die in a process that’s referred to as apoptosis.

Maybe you’ve heard of it. It’s where the body specifically decides to kill a cell because it’s doing something wrong or it’s been infected like in this case.

Now in the ideal world, the white blood cell will kill off this one epithelial cell in the urethra that’s been infected and we’d be done with the infection, but often times there are multiple organisms that kind of spread along the urethral tract, which cause more white blood cells to come from the blood stream to attack the bacteria or the cells that are infected and as a result you get inflammation.

Inflammation of the urethra causing things like pain when you urinate, maybe some burning that’s there as well, and general discomfort.

Because of the bacterium, your urethra will cause you a lot of pain and you’ve got what’s referred to as urethritis.

If the gonorrhea spreads up here to your prostate, this pink thing is your prostate, you can get what’s called prostatitis, and this inflammatory process that’s occurring along the way causes white blood cells that may die and epithelial cells that will also go undergo apoptosis with some of the gonorrheal bacteria to sluff off and fall through and come out from the urethral meatus or the end of the penis.

And you can actually see pus coming out of the penis. Now just like the epithelial cells within your urethra, gonorrhea can also effect the epithelial cells that line the anus or even higher up here in the rectum. As a result, you might not see pus coming out from the anus, and instead you might see infections of the cells that line the anus or of the anus.

So this skin infection you’d see here are referred to as pustules.

Pustules. Again, that’s from the gonorrheal bacteria infecting the epithelial cells of the anus. You can also have pustules occur in the female, so let’s label that right here as well as urethritis, but because of the difference in anatomy between the male and the female, you may also see an infection of the vagina, or vaginitis.

More commonly though, infected women will have pain during sex because of pressure that’s put on the cervix due to the gonorrhea that’s spread there causing cervicitis. Cervicitis.

Gonorrhea can spread even further up from the cervix through the uterus and actually come out the fallopian tubes to cause an infection within the pelvic cavity, which is why it’s called pelvic inflammatory disease.

Pelvic inflammatory disease, or PID.

Now from the genital tract, gonorrhea can spread into the blood stream and go elsewhere in the body and quite classically, it goes to your joints like the knee over here to cause arthritis by infecting the joint capsule, so down below here you can see the joint capsule.

Here’s bone, here’s articular cartilage, and this is sonovial fluid or just some fluid in between the two bones in the joint. So if gonorrhea spreads here, think about what else is gonna come right after it. White blood cells. Remember, they’re going to come chasing after the gonorrhea and they’re going to cause inflammation and if you notice in this picture, there’s not a lot of space between the two sets of articular cartilage and the bones here.

If too many white blood cells get into the sonovial cavity, and cause inflammation, you’re going to have a more difficult time using that joint which leads to pain in the knee and difficulty walking. Left untreated, gonorrhea can also spread to the central nervous system. Gonorrhea can infect the lining around the brain and the spinal cord.

This lining is referred to as the meninges; the meninges. An infection of the meninges is referred to as meningitis. Menigitis. Unfortunately, gonorrheal menigitis is more common in children than it is adults. Speaking of children, I mentioned earlier that you can spread gonorrhea through childbirth.

An infected mother can spread the infection if undetected to her child and very early on, you would know if a child is infected with gonorrhea if they look like this.

You’ll notice that the baby may have this very signature crusting of the eyes that’s referred to as gonococcal opthalmia, which is just to say that you have an opthalmic or an eye infection of gonorrhea.

This baby can also have a variety of other issues related to the gonorrhea, such as menigitis, as we talked about or even pneumonia, which is why neisseria gonorrhoeae or gonococcus as one of the bugs pregnant women are often screened for and treated for before they give birth to decrease the odds of this sort of thing happening.


How Estrogen Helps for a Healthy Function

By tony / 12/29/2017

Sex hormone estrogen for health and function

Also known as female sex hormone, estrogen are present in both males and females, although they are more abundant in women.

Perhaps the most popular among all hormones, it refers to a cluster of hormones with the same chemical makeup and they have a significant impact on the organs, cells, and the overall growth and functioning of the human body.

These hormones are formed not only in the ovaries, but also in adrenal glands and fat tissues.

In the rest of this article, you will know more about the different functions of estrogen in the human body, and hence, providing you with a better understanding on how it is essential to one’s health.

Physical Development of the Body

One of the most widely researched effects of estrogen on women’s health deals with how they have an impact on physical appearance.

This is comparable to the way by which testosterone works among men, which is responsible for manly characteristics, such as muscle mass.

Estrogen, on the other hand, is mainly responsible for defining a woman’s body an in making its physical structure significantly different from that of a man.

The following are some of the effects of estrogen on the physical body of a woman:

  • Having lesser and finer body hair
  • Preserving bone density, which makes shoulders narrower and pelvis broader
  • Shorter vocal cords resulting into a higher-pitched voice
  • Reduces muscle mass
  • Accelerates the ability of the body to burn fat
  • Develops fuller breasts
  • Production of milk

Brain Functioning and Development

Cognitive skills ability concept, male vs female.

Aside from the effects of estrogen on the physical health of women, several studies in the past have resulted into empirical evidences showing its effects on mental health.

For instance, it has been claimed that estrogen is instrumental in the delaying of memory loss, which often happens as a result of aging.

In as early as 1988, this has already been proven in a study by Barbara Sherwin.

Women who had their uterus and ovaries removed have been the subject of the investigation.

Those who have been given estrogen responded better on verbal tests and showed better cognitive functions.

Aside from delaying memory loss, it also helps in the modification of endorphins in the brain, or what are also known as happy hormones, making it able to provide favorable effects on mood.

Bone Health and Formation

As it has been earlier mentioned, estrogen is responsible for the preservation of bone density and in making women appear to be smaller as against men.

More than that, estrogen is also claimed to be instrumental in preserving the strength of the bones.

This is possible by working together with calcium and Vitamin D, among other vitamins and minerals.

Once the level of estrogen in the body become slower, which happens as a natural effect of aging, it also accelerates the breaking down of bones.


Skin Health

Most of the concentrations of estrogen in the body of a woman can be seen on the face and the skin above the thighs and breasts.

In a study published at the American Journal of Clinical Dermatology, it has been reiterated that estrogen can reverse the visible signs of aging.

It is believed that the hormone can aid in increasing skin elasticity and giving it a youthful glow in spite of growing older.

In relation to its positive effects on skin health, the same study also supports how estrogen can speed up the healing of wounds.

Cardiovascular Health

An ample amount of studies in the past have also supported claims with regards to how estrogen can prove to be an agent of a better heart health and in the prevention of a wide array of cardiovascular diseases.

One research from the University of London has revealed that this is possible as the hormone allows the immune system to have a better defense.

This can also make a good explanation on why heart diseases are more commonly experienced by men as opposed to women.

There is also a positive correlation between estrogen levels in the body and the behavior of white blood cells, which are essential in fighting infections that can negatively affect cardiovascular health.

These white blood cells will stick to the blood vessels and will prevent any damage that will be bad for your heart.

Estrogen, the Good, the Bad & the Ugly


Alternative Treatments For Menopausal Women And Its Symptoms

By tony / 12/29/2017

Natural Remedies For Menopausal Women

There is excellent news for menopausal women today.

In the past women have had no choice about menopausal treatments.

Doctors have traditionally only offered hormone replacement therapy as a legitimate treatment for the symptoms associated with menopause.

Today, however, other alternative treatments are making headlines in regards to menopause and post-menopause.

These remedies are a little more natural and are often very useful.

Although you may not be familiar with them, people have been using them since the beginning of time.

Take a look at some of these alternative treatments for menopause to see if they would possibly work for you.

Naturopathic Medicine

This form of medicine uses herbs, homeopathy, and other treatments like acupuncture for illnesses or bothersome symptoms.

It is being used more and more for menopause as well.

Experts warn that women who are at high risk of developing heart disease or other serious illnesses correlated with menopausal women should consider traditional treatments like hormone replacement therapy.

Those at low risk, however, can opt for a completely natural method such as this one.

Combining all of the physical treatments to find the best route for you is what this alternative therapy is all about.


Studies show that many herbs are very effective at controlling menopausal women and the symptoms associated with it.

Black cohosh is widely used for hot flashes while St. John’s Wart is a favorite herb for moodiness or anxiety.

Herbs have been used since the beginning of time by different groups of people.

They are still widely used in the non-Western world.

They are becoming more and more common in the West as well, however.


Those who favor alternative medicine will tell you that vitamins used in higher doses than usually can help ease the symptoms of menopause.

At different times in your life, your body will naturally lack different vitamins.

While you can often get the nutrients you need from food, talk with your doctor about extra supplements that may help you throughout menopause.


Soy has many different benefits for the body.

It has shown to lower blood pressure and helps stimulate disease preventing antibodies in the body.

It has also been known to help prevent hot flashes in women going through menopause.

If you don’t get enough soy, you can take soy tablets or try soy butter, soy milk, or other soy products.


Diet is a large part of why some people feel good, and others don’t.

Have you ever noticed that when you eat a lot of junk food, you feel horrible physically? 

During menopause, your body needs proper nutrition.

It is best to stick with as many fruits, vegetables, and grains as you can during this time.

Try to stay away from fats and red meat.

These alternative treatments are excellent for menopausal women who want to stay as natural as possible throughout menopause.

Remember however that some women will need hormone replacement therapy.

You should talk with your doctor and make the decision together regarding your treatment plans.

Natural Treatments for Menopause

Diet and supplements for menopause to see results in as little as 24 hours.

Top foods causing hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms

1)  Processed Sugar- Yeast and candida overgrowth in the gut which causes inflammation

2) Processed Soy- Contain estrogens

3) Conventional Meats- Packed with hormones, steroids and antibiotics that affect your hormones causing low sex drive and low energy

4) Packaged Foods- Contain hydrogenated oils and refined flours

5) Artificial Sweeteners- Sucralose, Aspartame and Splenda

6) Gluten- Cause inflammation of gut lining and can lead to autoimmune disease Top foods to help balance hormones and get rid of menopause symptoms

1) Healthy fats- avocado (high in potassium, magnesium and Omega-9 fats)

2) Omega 3 fatty acid- wild caught salmon and wild caught fish

3) Grass Fed beef- full of iron

4) Berries- High in Antioxidants

5) Flaxseeds and Flax Meal – sprouted or chia or hemp add to a morning smoothie

6) Coconut Products- Balance blood sugar

7) Cruciferous vegetables (broccoli, cabbage, turnips, kale) -Help to remove phytoestrogens to detox


Supplements for menopause

1) Black Cohosh –http://draxe.com/black-cohosh/

2) Vitex- balance many hormones in body and help female organs

3) Adaptogen Herbs- ginseng, ashwagandha, holy basil

4) Omega- 3- Reduce inflammation

5) Collagen Protein Powder

6) Probiotics- Help digestion- 95% of serotonin is produced in gut

7) Essential Oils- Clary Sage and Thyme- balance hormones *Ylang Ylang, orange, sandalwood (balancing mood)


1) Reduce stress

2) Detox Bath (epsom salts with essential oils)

3) Go on walks throughout the day

4) Give yourself some free time For more information on menopause relief and other natural remedies: http://draxe.com/5-natural-remedies-m…

*This content is strictly the opinion of Anthony Thomas and Dr. Josh Axe, and is for informational and educational purposes only.

It is not intended to provide medical advice or to take the place of medical advice or treatment from a personal physician.

All viewers of this content are advised to consult their doctors or qualified health professionals regarding specific health questions.

Shingles and postherpetic neuralgia pain

By tony / 12/29/2017

Shingles on the Body

The rash and/or blisters associated with shingles most commonly appears in a strip or band formation on a single side of the body. 

This strip or band of the shingles rash most often develops around the waist or “trunk” area.

This band follows what is called a dermatome, which is a patch of skin that is affected by one of the nerves from the spine.

Regardless, it is possible for the shingles rash to appear anywhere throughout the entire body, striking any dermatome.

The location where the rash appears is directly related to the reactivation of the virus within a particular nerve or nerves.

Postherpetic neuralgia

Postherpetic neuralgia is a complication of shingles, which is caused by the chickenpox (herpes zoster) virus.

Postherpetic neuralgia affects nerve fibers and skin, causing burning pain that lasts long after the rash and blisters of shingles disappear.

The risk of postherpetic neuralgia increases with age, primarily affecting people older than 60.

There’s no cure, but treatments can ease symptoms. For most people, postherpetic neuralgia improves over time.


The signs and symptoms of postherpetic neuralgia are generally limited to the area of your skin where the shingles outbreak first occurred — most commonly in a band around your trunk, usually on one side of your body.

However postherpetic neuralgia is also common in people whose shingles occurred on the face.

Signs and symptoms may include:

  • Pain that lasts 3 months or longer after the shingles rash has healed. The associated pain has been described as burning, sharp and jabbing, or deep and aching.
  • Sensitivity to light touch. People with the condition often can’t bear even the touch of clothing on the affected skin (allodynia).
  • Itching and numbness. Less commonly, postherpetic neuralgia can produce an itchy feeling or numbness.

When to see a doctor

See a doctor at the first sign of shingles.

Often the pain starts before you notice a rash.

Your risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia is lessened if you begin taking antiviral medications within 72 hours of developing the shingles rash.




About 1 in every 7 people who develop shingles will be affected in one of their eyes.

This can look like redness and/or pain in the actual eye ball or a red rash and blisters around the eye area.

Shingles in or around the eye, called ocular shingles, can make it difficult to move the eye ball or the eyelid, as puffiness and swelling may occur.

In extreme cases, vision loss or permanent blindness can occur.

If you develop shingles in or around your eye, it is important you seek medical attention.


A shingles outbreak may show up on your head or face.

postherpetic neuralgia

postherpetic neuralgia

If this happens, it means the shingles virus is attacking the cranial nerves, which are the nerves that supply motor function and sensation to the head and face.

Shingles involving the cranial nerve can cause weakness of the face muscles, along with the uncomfortable rash/blisters.


Shingles near or on the ear can lead to uncomfortable complications including hearing problems, balance issues, and weakness of the facial muscles.

These symptoms may remain after the shingles rash has cleared, and can even become permanent if not treated appropriately.


Shingles can develop in or around the mouth.  Having a shingles rash in this area is especially uncomfortable, as it can be painful to eat while the rash is active.

Additionally, shingles in or around the mouth can lead to one’s sense of taste changing.


Shingles do not usually affect the groin area, but it is possible.

If you think you may have shingles in or around your groin, it is best to schedule an appointment with your doctor for purposes of accurate diagnosis and treatment.

Sometimes, other skin diseases and infections can be mistaken for shingles, including psoriasis, jock itch, pubic lice, scabies, and/or some sexually transmitted diseases.


While it is unlikely you will develop shingles in or around your anus, it is possible, as the anus contains nerve endings. postherpetic neuralgia

If you think you have shingles on your anus, it is important to get checked by a medical professional as soon as possible.

If not treated, this can lead to loss of sensation, incontinence, and/or retention of stool.

Nose and Scalp

The virus may also appear on the nose and scalp.


National Health Service. (2017). Shingles. Retrieved on September 11, 2017 from https://beta.nhs.uk/conditions/shingles/



New treatment for the pain of shingles

Shingles without a Rash

Shingles without a rash is referred to as zoster sine herpete (ZSH).

This type of shingles is uncommon, and quite difficult to diagnose.

Causes and Risk Factors

It is unknown why the varicella zoster virus reactivates as shingles for some people and not others.

Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) or shingles without a rash is still caused by the varicella zoster virus, but like the more common shingles, only develops in some people.

Just as with herpes zoster, there are risk factors that increase ones chances of getting zoster sine herpete.

These include:

* Having HIV/AIDS
* Receiving cancer treatments (chemotherapy or radiation)
* If you are an organ transplant patient (as these individuals are usually prescribed immunosuppressant drugs)
* High levels of stress
* If you take high doses of corticoid steroids


Shingles without the rash is more difficult to detect, as the rash and/or blisters are not present.

Beyond the rash, ZSH does have most of the same symptoms as herpes zoster, including:

* Itchiness
* A numb feeling
* A burning sensation that is painful
* An overall achy feeling throughout the body – flu like symptoms develop in individuals with shingles (whether with a rash or not).
Muscle aches and mild fever are also common and tend to last anywhere from 7-10 days.
* Fatigue and lethargy
* Poor appetite – because of the flu-like symptoms associated with shingles, many experience a loss of appetite, which of course, can result in weight loss
* Headaches
* Pain – shingles tends to be a very painful disease.

The pain associated with shingles (with or without a rash) is usually described as a stabbing or shooting (postherpetic neuralgia pain).
Due to the impact the varicella zoster virus has on the body’s nervous system, the pain can also have an electric feel to it.
* Increased sensitivity to touch

Treatment of shingles without the rash

Once your doctor diagnoses you with ZSH, he or she will most likely prescribe antiviral medications, such as acyclovir (commonly known as Valtrex or Zovirax).

You may also be given a prescription for pain medication.

Complications of shingles without rash

Shingles with a rash (herpes zoster) typically clears up anywhere from two to six weeks after the rash develops.

Yet, in some cases, people experience pain that extends beyond the time when the rash has healed.

This is referred to as postherpetic neuralgia. And while many cases of shingles without the rash heal in a similar time frame, some studies suggest that these individuals are more likely to develop postherpetic neuralgia.

Also, those with a weakened immune system and shingles without a rash are more likely to have shingles again.

There are other complications that can result from shingles without rash, including:

* Neurological problems – the shingles virus attacks nerves, which can become permanently damaged following a shingles outbreak.
This can cause facial paralysis, hearing issues, balance problems, and/or inflammation of the brain.
* Vision loss – vision damage or permanent vision loss can occur if a shingle outbreak is in or around the eye.

These complications while rare, can be very severe, and are more likely to occur if a shingles outbreak goes untreated.

If you notice possible symptoms of shingles, but do not develop a rash or blisters, there is still a chance you have developed shingles (zoster sine herpete) and should consult with your medical professional.


Shingles Symptoms -- Signs of each Stage of the Disease and Ideas on Fighting It!


Gilden, D., Cohrs, R. and Nagel, M. (2009). Neurological Disease produced by varicella zoster virus reactivation without rash. Retrieved on September 11, 2017 from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3076592/

Shingles comes from the chickenpox virus that most people get as a kid.

When our immune system defeats the chickenpox virus, it traps it like a prisoner within nerve cells near the spinal cord.

Unfortunately if our immune system slips up, or gets weaker the chickenpox virus can break free.

This is why it’s more common in the elderly because they have a weaker immune system, but it can affect someone of any age.

When the virus breaks free like any prisoner it makes its way to the surface through the nervous system.

The immune system is going to do everything it can to fight this virus, and this could bring about some symptoms.

These symptoms could include a fever, a headache, diarrhea and fatigue as the body’s defense mechanism tries to stop the escaped prisoners.

Eventually the virus can make its way to the surface and will bring about a tingling sensation and the area will be sensitive to light.

Usually this tingling will take place around the stomach or chest area, but can take place anywhere.

The worst place to get Shingles is around the head area, which around 15% of people get.

The reason this is bad is because there is a lot of sensitive areas, and it could damage the eyes, causing problems and blindness.

This tingling sensation can last a few hours to weeks.

The next stage is that the tingling turns into pain.

People can experience this pain differently and it’s been described as being burning, stinging or very itchy.

It can be ongoing and could be brought on by a small breeze or light touch.

Next patches of red dots take form on the skin.

Within a day these pimples develop into tiny fluid-filled blisters.

The blisters grow and merge and become filled with this pus substance.

At this time depending on how strong the immune system is more red dots can start to appear growing the pain.

Within a week to two weeks the blisters form crusts and begin to heal.

Of course this all depends on the immune system, and it could even take months for the blisters to heal.

The good news with this health problem is that most people recover from it within a few weeks usually, but a small percentage of people get something called postherpetic neuralgia.

This is a burning sensation occurring after the rash goes away that can be so severe in gets in the way of someone’s sleeping, and there daily activity.

Right now there is no cure for this postherpetic neuralgia, but there are some treatments that help with the pain.

Shingles is usually treated with antiviral medicine and pain medicines, just like ibuprofen.

If it is treated early on it can reduce the chance of it spreading, as well as becoming postherpetic neuralgia.

The ideal way to deal with this condition is to not get it in the first place by having a strong immune system.

Strengthening your immune system not only helps a person with shingles, but with so many other problems as well.

A person can do this by eating healthy foods, getting plenty of rest and not getting stressed out a lot.

I’m not sure why stress causes the immune system to become weak, maybe it’s because the brain is so powerful that it uses a lot of energy.

There are also tons of herbal remedies and supplements that can help.

For starters green tea helps by adding interferon to someone.

Interferon interferes with a virus’s ability to replicate and that is why it has its name. Another great herb is something called olive leaf extract.

This herbal medicine is anti-viral and anti-bacterial, which can for sure help stop the growth of this ailment.

There really are just tons of others like black cumin seeds, garlic and quercetin to name a few.

To get these alternative medicines you would take a dietary supplement product.

In case you haven’t noticed supplements can be confusing because there are so many of them that all say the same things.

To make matters worse government agencies like the FDA in the U.S. don’t regulate the industry, so it’s easy for companies to make crappy products.

Why Some People Get Shingles and Others Do Not

The varicella zoster virus (VZV), which is one of eight herpes viruses known to infect humans, causes both chicken pox (varicella) and shingles (herpes zoster).

Chicken pox results from one’s initial exposure to the virus (and usually occurs in childhood).

Once a person has had chicken pox, the virus remains in his or her body’s nerves indefinitely.

When the varicella zoster virus is reactivated, shingles develop.

Thus, only people who have previously had chicken pox can develop shingles (this includes children as well).

Around 1 million people suffer from shingles each year, which is approximately 30% of people who have had chicken pox.

Unfortunately, the reason the varicella zoster virus only reactivates for some is not well understood.

Risk Factors

Nonetheless, there are some factors that will increase one’s risk of developing shingles.

Most risk factors (or factors that increase the chance of triggers a shingles outbreak) revolve around decreased function of the immune system, including:

* Age – although a person of any age can get shingles, as he or she ages, the risk of developing shingles increases.
* Cancer treatments – chemotherapy and radiation are shown to lower a person’s resistance to disease, infection, etc.
* Certain medications – immunosuppressive drugs lower the one’s immune system function, making them more susceptible to developing shingles
* Diseases – HIV/AIDS and certain cancers
* Children – children are more likely to develop shingles if their mother had chicken pox late in the pregnancy or if the child had chicken pox as an infant.

Other possible factors

There are other hypotheses about what can trigger the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus.

One of the most widely discussed is the possible connection between stress and shingles outbreaks.

The immune system and central nervous system are interconnected.

Thus, it is logical to suggest physical and/or psychological stress can affect these two systems operative interactions, resulting in a weaker immune system, and subsequent shingles.

* Physical stress – many people suffer from chronic pain (because of various medical conditions).

Because chronic pain can be a significant stressor, it is thought that this may trigger a shingles outbreak.
* Psychological stress – also known as emotional stress, can also affect the body’s ability to defend against illness and virus.

The duration and intensity of stress are likely related to the level of resulting immune dysfunction.

Of course, stress is just a factor that increases one’s risk of developing shingles.

It is not a cause of shingles (remember, for those who develop shingles the virus is already lying dormant in the body).

Although it is inconclusive as to exactly why some people develop shingles and some do not, it is clear certain factors greatly increase an individual’s risk.

While most people who do develop shingles only experience one outbreak, some do have a second or third episode at some point throughout their lifespan.


Pergam, S. & Limaye, A. (2009). Varicella zoster virus. Retrieved on September 8, 2017 

How does hormonal changes affect your eczema?

By tony / 12/28/2017

Hormonal Changes

In Woman’s

How Does that Affect Eczema?

Hormones play a role in a woman’s life, and the hormones are working at full capacity when a girl begins menstruating, every time she menstruates, during pregnancy and when a woman is going through menopause.

It is unclear while some women report that pregnancy causes their eczema to flare-up worse while other women see a great deal of improvement.

The endocrine system of the human body consists of both tissues and organs that manufacture hormones.

Hormones are “natural chemicals produced in one location, secreted into the bloodstream, then used by certain other target organs and systems.”

It is the hormones that allow the target organs to do their job.

Some of the organ systems have hormones as well as their “own internal control systems.”

Aging and changes in the body occur in the way the systems are managed.

Some tissues have a habit of developing less sensitivity to the individual hormone that controls them.

As time passes and a woman ages and goes through different stages in her life the blood levels of a variety of hormones changes.

Some increase while other decreases and still others remain the same.

Hormones tend to metabolize at a prolonged rate.

The organs of the body that manufacture hormones are in many cases controlled by yet other hormones.

Aging and changes in a woman’s reproductive cycle play a role in all of this.

To use an example, endocrine tissues very often produce a lesser amount of hormone in middle age than it did when the individual was younger, but in other incidences, it might provide the same quantity over the years but do so at a much slower speed.

For those suffering from eczema, a good rule of thumb is not to begin any new types of treatments for your condition while you are going through a hormonal change.

For example do not start ultraviolet therapy, topical immune-modulators or steroid creams when you are getting ready for your period to begin because hormonal changes could wreak havoc on the results you hope to achieve. Instead, start a few weeks before or a few weeks after menstruation is passed.

two male palms with eczema

Pregnancy in particular causes hormones to go crazy.

The volume of blood a woman’s heart pumps increases a great deal when she is pregnant, and this increase in both hormone production and blood can bring about changes in a woman’s skin.

These changes are not the same for every woman.

Some women’s eczema skin becomes drier, flakier and itchier while others find that their level of natural oils is plentiful.

It is essential to schedule regular visits to your doctor or dermatologist during pregnancy to keep abreast of all of the changes in your skin, whether it be improvements or increased incidences of breakouts.

Menopause causes a shake-up of hormones and requires that eczema prone skin needs some extra tender loving care.

However, in a lot of cases, eczema is not as common for women of menopausal age.

Atopic eczema is very rare in menopausal individuals whereas varicose and discoid eczema is more common among this age group of women.

After menopause has ended, many women have lesser amounts of the hormones estrogen, estradiol and prolactin.


Itchy Skin & Menopause

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